Additionally, we should also make the distinction between direct bullying (which involves relatively explicit attacks on the victim) and indirect bullying (which takes the form of exclusion from a group and social isolation). It is particularly crucial to pay attention to the second one since it is a less obvious form.
Bullying leads to a number of negative consequences such as physical, social, and educational. Teenagers who are bullied have worse social, emotional, and educational performance than their peers who do not experience bullying.
According to earlier studies, bullying has also a major negative effect on children's and teenagers' mental health and wellbeing. When compared to adolescents who do not suffer bullying, victims tend to experience poorer school performance. Furthermore, they are also more likely to suffer and report more psychiatric symptoms, and emotional and behavioural issues such as conduct problems, somatisation, panic attacks, and depressive symptoms. In particular, melancholy, anxiety, physical sensations (namely withdrawal and loneliness), and suicide ideation are all identified as prevalent symptoms.
Therefore, it is essential and should be a top priority for schools to consider bullying interventions and prevention programs to improve wellbeing and reduce emotional behavioural issues. Hence, these programs should be promoted and implemented in schools in order to develop and build positive psychological orientations.